/edu/ - Education

Education, Literature, History, Science

Mode: Thread

Max message length: 8192


Max file size: 80.00 MB

Max files: 5


(used to delete files and postings)


Remember to follow the rules

(200.47 KB 445x565 Hirohito_wartime(cropped).jpg)
Historian 03/01/2020 (Sun) 12:29:42 No. 291 [Reply] [Last]
Would anime today be better if Americans rightfully executed the Emperor for his war crimes after the second world war instead of blaming it all on Hideki Tojo?
1 post and 1 image omitted.
Japan surrendered. There would have been no grounds to execute the head of state.
>>3865 They could have easily executed him for the war crimes he was responsible for. In fact the Americans had to do a lot to deceive the judges at the Tokyo trial into sparing his life.
>>3867 Yeah. The Nazis got the worst of it in comparison, yet many of their crimes were left unpunished.
What do communists do with inbred parasitic royalty?
>>3869 We shoot them or make them spend the rest of their life as janitors doing it for FREE

(38.09 KB 500x281 008787867.jpg)
Comrade 08/26/2020 (Wed) 19:59:30 No. 3775 [Reply] [Last]
I've been reading a lot about classical economics, or classically-trained economists (mostly cause I live in a small town and my local library only has capital and i feel im not ready yet for that). How much classical or "mainstream" economics should I read before getting into marx and marxist theory proper? I should mention Im only doing this in the first place cause I'm a literal brainlet when it comes to economics so I'm trying to learn basic economic concepts in order to build on later with the marxism. Also when it comes to philosophy, should it go plato--->aristotle--->hegel---->marx? Or should I add a few more or maybe skip some? pic unrelated
3 posts omitted.
>>3775 Depends how smart you are. Capital is pretty easy (the language of the first chapter is quite difficult though. Honestly just skip it and come back later), if you have read any classical economics go for capital right now. If you want the most basic Marx reading I'd recommend Critique of the Gotha program, as it's very basic and easy to read. In general I find Engels/Lenin is easier to digest. To understand the philosophical background, I recommend this short read https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1886/ludwig-feuerbach/index.htm After this and the first 2 books the other guy recommend, I think you would be more than ready to read Capital. But it does depend on the angle you're going for, if you're interested in philosophy, definitely read Hegel. However if you're interested in economics, as it seems, I would deem Hegel a waste of your time right now and just read the link I sent. From philosophy you need to be well acquainted with these terms though as a Marxist (start from the link I sent) -idealism -materialism -dialectics
>>3784 >>3785 thanks for effortposts comrades
>>3775 In regards to philosophy, I'm a layman myself, but please don't start with the Greeks it's a meme. They are not relevant anymore the few things that are relevant get repeated and explained by modern philosophers enough. Start with the young Hegelian: Marx, Engels, Feuerbach and Stirner. And from there on you can read whatever you like. A personal recommendation from me would be the early Frankfurt school and Bakunin, but it's just what I enjoy the most.
Read Smith, then Capital. Nothing else is needed IMO.
I asked this on /leftypol/ but I think I'll get an answer here: Is there a consensus on which English translation of Capital is best? I have a paper version of the Moore and Aveling translation but I'm considering getting a different one (Fowkes I guess), since this one is too bulky and I've heard about quite a few translation errors in it. Is it worth being picky over the mistranslations? I'm just worried that I'll fail to notice the errors and then pick up a wrong interpretation of Marx.

(47.84 KB 474x355 galaxy brain.jpg)
What is IQ really? Comrade 07/09/2020 (Thu) 13:33:17 No. 2243 [Reply] [Last]
Is IQ even real? Can it reliably measure someone's "intelligence"? What even is intelligence, and is it really primarily genetic? Is IQ really tied to race? I keep seeing a lot of conflicting opinions on this but I'm too much of a brainlet to find a satisfying answer.
2 posts and 1 image omitted.
>>2255 Yes, look at your own map, most blue countries/regions are descended from Europe: Canada, US, Argentina, Europe, Russia, Australia. China and Japan are outliers, if anything it proves that one can train for the test, and that is what they do, they literally train how to take these standardised tests. Both China and Japan have cultures where academic success is respected and something that people strive for, so of course those countries will have higher test AVERAGES, because there are simply more of them who do well.
IQ is a bit meh. Of course, there are various aspects to what is considered intelligence; so even if you have good measures for the aspects, it's somewhat arbitrary how you weight them. Extremely bad results can tell you whether somebody is disabled. We know IQ tests aren't perfect, the weighting issue aside. There are programs for solving IQ tests, yet this doesn't give us a general simulation of human intelligence. The way IQ talk is used in political discussion – as a cause, not as both cause and effect – is asinine. If you are malnourished and live in a polluted area, you get brain-damage from that, no matter how great your genetic potential is. There is some correlation between very good IQ results and doing well in school. But it doesn't make sense to obsess over two people being ten or fifteen points apart. IQ test results are NOT stable over life, that's a big lie that I suspect people tell who know better and who want to score above the herd. You can definitely practice for these tests and improve by twenty to thirty points. I don't think you can get from 80 to 150 though. >>2249 Your argument about test-making and solving assumes a symmetry that isn't there. I can create a vocabulary test against a dictionary without having perfect memory about what's in the dictionary myself. I can set a higher time-limit for myself as a test-maker than I allow for the test-taker and I can allow myself to use certain tools that I don't allow the test-takers to use. I can make very hard puzzles about shoving pieces around by going backwards from the solution, that doesn't mean I can solve puzzles of similar complexity myself. It's easier to multiply prime numbers than to be shown the result of that multiplication and having to find the prime numbers from that.
>>2249 >IQ was designed in the same way, European (white) males are taken to be the standard against which others are tested. I’m not incredibly pro IQ or anything but this is such a bullshit argument. IQ was created by the school board to identify students with learning disabilities.
(7.94 KB 190x293 mmm.jpeg)
>>3850 >IQ was created by the school board to identify students with learning disabilities. The original IQ test as created by Binet, yes, it was meant to identify children with learning disabilities. But then the Americans took it, and created the Stanford-Binet scale, among others. That is the IQ test we talk about and know today. I'm not talking out of my ass, I got my info from pic related. It's a good book and you should read it. >Your argument about test-making and solving assumes a symmetry that isn't there. My point is that the test (actually, in the beginning there were two tests, for literate and illiterate people, it's actually a very interesting story, but I digress) was designed in a way that it presented people with problems and then timed them on how fast they're able to complete the tasks, if at all. Now, why would the test-creator assign tasks that he himself cannot solve? The original IQ test asked things about days of the week, about American culture, asked them about radio, etc. basically, it tested white, middle-class intelligence. Poor whites also did poorly on the tests. The test didn't test "intelligence", but integration into American society, it asked questions that the test-makers knew the answer to. And I ask again, how can someone ask a question they themselves can't answer and then judge someone on the validity of that answer?
>>3856 >how can someone ask a question they themselves can't answer and then judge someone on the validity of that answer? That question was already answered ITT, you are just too dumb to get it :/

/chart/ Comrade 08/23/2020 (Sun) 20:22:47 No. 3423 [Reply] [Last]
I made these charts recently, if you have any ideas of new charts or charts of your own drop them here.
6 posts and 3 images omitted.
>>3423 i tried to read theses on feuerbach, since that was first on the chart, and it makes no sense. doesnt seem like beginner material at all.>>3423
>>3818 It was one of the first works of Marx and it's very short. Also it makes you familiar with Marx's materialist philosophy
>>3820 >The chief defect of all hitherto existing materialism – that of Feuerbach included – is that the thing, reality, sensuousness, is conceived only in the form of the object or of contemplation, but not as sensuous human activity, practice, not subjectively. Hence, in contradistinction to materialism, the active side was developed abstractly by idealism – which, of course, does not know real, sensuous activity as such. Feuerbach wants sensuous objects, really distinct from the thought objects, but he does not conceive human activity itself as objective activity. Hence, in The Essence of Christianity, he regards the theoretical attitude as the only genuinely human attitude, while practice is conceived and fixed only in its dirty-judaical manifestation. Hence he does not grasp the significance of “revolutionary”, of “practical-critical”, activity. what the hell does this even mean? how is the average prole to understand any of this
>>3821 These charts are for people interested in reading and learning, it's not for every prole on Earth. I agree in general that it shouldn't be the first on the list however. I would maybe put Engels there instead. Or the gotha program. There definitely is a barrier between these texts and new leftists because of a lack of understand of materialism, idealism, and dialectics. tbh read the wikipedia articles for these things to get an idea, there are also many good articles explaining these concepts in a less 19th century way. Basically he's saying all materialism is currently wack, it causes them to think that >theoretical attitude is the only genuinely human attitude, while practice is only conceived and fixed only in its manifestation Feuerbach does not think human activity is an objective activity, which is contrary to Marx's materialism. >>3801 This is a good guide also, you can pick your destiny so to speak. Marx says himself that in all sciences, the beginning is the hardest, and this is no exception.

Theories of Imperialism Comrade 08/18/2020 (Tue) 13:24:03 No. 3026 [Reply] [Last]
I don't know much about Imperialism. Can someone summarise the key differences between the Luxemburgian theory of Imperialism and the ML theory of Imperialism? Where do they differ and which of them is, in your mind, more accurate? I have unfortunately not the time to read "Die Akkumulation des Kapitals." or "Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism" as I have to do a lot of reading for uni at the time and my tbr list is already way too long. It´s a topic I'm really interested in and I would appreciate it if you could help me out here. Maybe you know a shorter, more accessible introductional book on imperialism.
>>3026 >industrial capital merges together with bank capital, creates financial capital >creating of trusts, monopolies, bourgeois unions, and so on >trusts destroy and choke the competition, capital centralizes even further >centralization means monopoly over natural resources >regional goes national, national goes international >biggest firms own the capital in other countries, exploits further their resources and labor force >world is now partitioned between the most developed capitalist states. further repartitions will cause wars >imperialism Correct me if I missed something, comrades.
>>3816 You missed the part about the banking hegemony where countries are invaded when they stop using the dominant financial transaction system. You know like in Libya the first thing the counter revolutionaries did was create a new central bank to undo the Gold-dinar that Gaddafi had implemented. I think this is a relatively recent development of imperialism.
>>3817 Monopolies became entrenched around the late 1800s before the formation of our modern credit system. A credit system which Lenin nor Marx could not commentate on as the the gold standard had not been dropped in place of the US dollar yet. Libya's threat to the US dollar would lower the demand for the US dollar and weaken its purchasing power. The US has a trade deficit, thus its dollars flood foreign markets, particularly those which it extracts value from. Its military opens up new markets and creates more capital in the process of capital accumulation. Michael Hudson explains this much better than I can, and he is foremost the leading economist in formulation of American imperialism and the debt economy.

Linear Algebra General /LA/ Comrade 08/24/2020 (Mon) 21:27:33 No. 3446 [Reply] [Last]
-Linear Algebra General- Welcome to /LA/ comrades. In this thread we will work together more or less in line with the MIT OCW Linear Algebra syllabus. The OCW page can be found here: https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mathematics/18-06-linear-algebra-spring-2010/index.htm On the OCW page you can find the calendar, recommended readings, lectures, and problem sets and exams. The lectures are done by Gilbert Strang who also wrote the recommended textbook. I think he is a very good instructor and I believe you should certainly give his lectures a watch if you are interested in learning more. The Calendar is divided into 40 sessions which correspond to 40 assigned readings and lectures. There are 10 problem sets and 4 exams with all the solutions online. This thread will serve as a place to discuss lectures, readings, and, probably most usefully, ask other anons for help on problem sets or exams.
6 posts and 1 image omitted.
>>3759 Thank you anon this was actually very helpful. I appreciate you taking the time to lay this out for me.
>>3760 You're very welcome, I won't be doing the course but will check here regularly to help the best I can!
What's the point of learning this bourgeois mathematics? How will it ever help the working class?
>>3808 This is the language of how the planet is *actually* run. Without this we would never be able to run world wide distribution networks (read Cockshott)
>>3808 I hope you're baiting lol

(305.02 KB 1741x2560 81LOxJ+qS9L.jpg)
Comrade 05/13/2020 (Wed) 16:07:07 No. 1603 [Reply] [Last]
I'm looking for book recommendations on Operaismo, Operation Gladio and the Marshall Plan. If anyone has suggestions, then it would be much appreciated.
here's the obvious one
>>1603 Are these letters soyfacing?
>>3791 Brain damage as a result of forced memes.
>>1603 These are not books entirely about what you requested but there is good info on Operation Gladio and the Marshall Plan in these PDFs
>>3791 someone make a tronti soyfacing wojak >>3797 thank you! I really appreciate it

(437.26 KB 920x644 sudetenland.png)
The truth about Stalin Comrade 07/15/2020 (Wed) 17:34:14 No. 2473 [Reply] [Last]
I want to learn more about the dogmatism that surrounds Stalin in socialism by looking at the actual historical evidence. I know there are books by Grover Furr that discuss this subject. but I want to additionally know what are some books with direct counter-arguments to Grover Furr's claims, and which of Grover Furr's books I should read first. any suggestions? pic unrelated.
2 posts omitted.
>>2476 >Which of Furrs books Khruschev Lied is an excellent one and I also suggest his work on Katyn which you can find on his website. https://msuweb.montclair.edu/~furrg/research/furr_katyn_preprint_0813.pdf >source His response to Mike Ely: https://stalinist75.rssing.com/chan-52237329/all_p1.html Someone elses response to Ely as well: https://www.revleft.space/vb/threads/142976-Response-to-Kasama-s-attack-on-Grover-Furr
>>2473 <Domenico Losurdo <Stalin: The History and Critique of a Black Legend <The figure of Stalin occupies a central position in the history of the twentieth century. Bloody dictator but also organizer of an empire of immense size, creator of the gulag and destroyer of the Nazi concentration camps, cynical manipulator of the ideals of social renewal and object of an unprecedented cult of personality, the judgment on the "iron Georgian" followed closely the luck of his character until the final sentence after the fall of the Berlin wall. Domenico Losurdo returns to analyze the myth of Stalin to describe its rise and fall.
(131.41 KB 1160x629 fidelc.jpg)
<Q: Fidel, for most Latin American revolutionary leaders, the current crisis of socialism has a mastermind: Josef Stalin. A: I believe Stalin made big mistakes but also showed great wisdom. In my opinion, blaming Stalin for everything that occurred in the Soviet Union would be historical simplism, because no man by himself could have created certain conditions. It would be the same as giving Stalin all the credit for what the USSR once was. That is impossible! I believe that the efforts of millions and millions of heroic people contributed to the USSR's development and to its relevant role in the world in favor of hundreds of millions of people. I have criticized Stalin for a lot of things. First of all, I criticized his violation of the legal framework. I believe Stalin committed an enormous abuse of power. That is another conviction I have always had. I feel that Stalin's agricultural policy did not develop a progressive process to socialize land. In my opinion, the land socialization process should have begun earlier and should have been gradually implemented. Because of its violent implementation, it had a very high economic and human cost in a very brief period of history. I also feel that Stalin's policy prior to the war was totally erroneous. No one can deny that western powers promoted Hitler until he became a monster, a real threat. The terrible weakness shown by western powers before Hitler cannot be denied. This at encouraged Hitler's expansionism and Stalin's fear, which led Stalin to do something I will criticize all my life, because I believe that it was a flagrant violation of principles: seek peace with Hitler at any cost, stalling for time. During our revolutionary life, during the relatively long history of the Cuban Revolution, we have never negotiated a single principle to gain time, or to obtain any practical advantage. Stalin fell for the famous Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact at a time when Germans were already demanding the delivery of the Danzig Corridor. I feel that, far from gaining time, the nonaggression pact reduced time, because the war broke out anyway. Then, in my opinion, he made another big mistake, because when Poland was being attacked, he sent troops to occupy that territory, which was disputed because it had a Ukrainian or Russian population, I am not sure.

Message too long. Click here to view full text.

/cybersoc/ critical edition Comrade 04/15/2020 (Wed) 07:28:15 No. 1063 [Reply] [Last]
ITT we post links and pdfs to critical or constructive takes on Cockshott and cybersocialism, as well as works or authors who wrote in the fields of cybernetics, systems theory, or operational research in general. >>>/leftypol/438911 >>>/leftypol/438923 >>>/edu/850
17 posts and 10 images omitted.
bump more pls
>>1345 I'll see if I can find something interesting. The project that inspired this thread is on the backburner rn in favor of >>882 but it is broadly related so I'll be contributing more to this thread in the future
Bumping this thread because brainlets on leftypol don't know why their Cockshott threads are being bumplocked
>>1064 Is there a transcript of this? A question for you cybersocs from someone who admittedly doesn't know a lot about cyber socialism: Who chooses/elects/trains the people who build, write and maintain these cybernetic planning systems and accompanying algorithms?
>>1073 >We have so much processing power now, wouldn't it make more sense to have multiple competing models generate different plans and then use some kind of political system to reconcile the differences? This is exactly what Cockshott proposes my man.

(240.49 KB 662x540 1475417084125.png)
Comrade 05/14/2020 (Thu) 05:00:09 No. 1617 [Reply] [Last]
Drop those PDF's or else
27 posts and 27 images omitted.
Missing volume 5. The FBI report in volume 6 on his Essay on Liberation is really funny lol.


no cookies?