>>42167> 1. "Required to have a gun by law" is wrong.> To quote what I wrote elsewhere:
>> Albanian and pro-Albanian sources gave the impression everyone was armed. It's possible that some northern tribesmen were able to keep their weapons around if they weren't seen as a threat to the government, but I find it hard to believe people in Tirana and other cities all had rifles in their homes.> I have no evidence, but what probably happened is something like people "on duty" in militia work did have a gun at home, and gave it up once their time to serve ended.> The "everyone was armed" bit, if true, would have been something introduced during Hoxha's "Cultural and Ideological Revolution," which abolished army ranks (copying China's Cultural Revolution in that regard) and emphasized everyone receiving military training. But requiring to own a gun "by law" seems wrong.> Pre-1966, at least, it seems everyone being armed wasn't the case. A West German journalist wrote, "Not all civilians are armed in Albania's border regions, and in practice the motto quoted earlier ['Build up Socialism with the pickaxe in one hand and the rifle in the other'] should in all probability be reformulated to read, 'The pickaxe for all, but the rifle only for him who can be trusted.'" (Harry Hamm, Albania—China's Beachhead in Europe, 1963, p. 66)> 2. That's true, as was the case in pretty much any socialist country.> 3. Obviously Albanian culture wasn't "violent" in the same sense as Western countries (e.g. you weren't going to be able to watch Texas Chainsaw Massacre or Scarface), but as with Yugoslavia and the USSR a major theme in cultural life was World War II, in this case the partisan resistance to Italian and German occupation. Even a major cigarette brand was called Partizani. And as noted military training for civilians was widespread. Not only that but there were bunkers placed all over the country, sharp objects would be placed by citizens to skewer any hypothetical paratroops in the event of invasion, political rhetoric argued Albania was under a "blockade" by the US, UK and USSR, and Hoxha said stuff like Albanians having to learn to live as if in a state of siege. So that's clearly not a "peaceful" atmosphere.> 4. "Alienation" and "antisocial tendencies" is a bit vague, and yeah religious extremism was combated (but then so was *all* expression of religion after 1966) although religious extremism was never much of a problem in Albania to begin with.